Environmental health is the branch of public health that: focuses on the relationships between people and their environment; promotes human health and well-being; and fosters healthy and safe communities. Environmental health is a key part of any comprehensive public health system.

Environmental health aims to create environments supportive of good health and to minimize disease. This is achieved by controlling environmental factors that impact adversely on human health. Throughout Africa, modern environmental health hazards, including mercury, lead, air toxins, water contaminants, pesticides, and domestic and hazardous waste, need to be addressed alongside longstanding environmental health concerns such as poor housing, inadequate water and sanitation, and exposure to indoor air pollution from the use of solid and liquid fuels for cooking